Spacer fabric is a three-dimensional knitted fabric consisting of two separate knitted substrates, which are joined together or kept apart by spacer yarns. First layer – hydrophilic nature Second layer – hydroscopic nature Spacer layer – mono or multi filament
This three dimensional fabric is comprised of an initial layer for moisture release, an interior layer for air flow, and a third outer layer for heat dissipation. According to the end uses, the spacer ends of monofilaments may be polyester, polyamide or polypropylene. These fabrics are designed for airflow and cushioning

The middle to create two separate fabrics (spacer fabrics) are essentially pile fabrics that have not been cut consisting of two layers of fabric separated by yarns at a 90 degree angle.
Spacer fabrics (3D fabrics) are produced through knitting and weaving technologies; among these technologies knitting is the most common manufacturing process for the production of spacer fabrics. There are two types of spacer fabrics: warp-knitted spacer fabric and weft-knitted spacer fabric.

The first type is knitted on a rib raschel machine having two needle bars, while the second is knitted on a double jersey circular machine having a rotatable needle cylinder and needle dial. 3D Spacer structures are much like a sandwich the constructions comprising two separate fabric webs, which are joined together by spacer threads of varying rigidity.
Where the face and back of the fabric are knitted separately, at the same time, it is interconnected by monofilament yarns. Three layer of this fabric is constructed at the same time, so the cost of laminating or combining is reduced.

Circular knitting machines with two sets of needles have the ability to create two individual layers of fabric that are held together by tucks. Such a fabric was referred to as a double -faced fabric also be called as spacer fabric. It is produced by flat, v-bed and purl machines.
All techniques require the use of at least three different yarns for each course of visual fabric. The degree of space or height between the two fabric faces is determined in the circular knitting machine by the setting of the dial height relative to the machine cylinder. Spacer fabric heights present in this way can vary between 1.5 and 5.5 mm.
With the uses of high and low butt needles, spacer fabrics are produced in weft knitting by tucking on dial and cylinder needles at the same feeder and knitting/plating on the dial needles . At feeders 1&3 spacer yarn knitted on dial needle and tucked on cylinder needles.

 Warp-knitted spacer fabrics consist of two ground surfaces, which are bound through pile yarns with stitches. The production in Raschel machine with two needle bars is possible and has great similarity to flat knitting. Great flexibility is associated with warp- knitted spacer fabrics because different materials may theoretically be used in guide bars 1 and 2, 3 and 4, and 5 and 6.
Raschel spacer structure has more advantages as it can be produced with dimensional stability and/or stretch. Also the air and water permeability of the structure can be controlled. In this method we can produce different width of spacer fabrics without ripping or ravelling structure.
The force required to press the two surfaces together (pressure resistance) is dependent on the mass of mono-filaments in the structure, which means yarn count, stitch density, and machine gauge in relation to the spacer fabric. Some other properties of warp and weft knitted spacer fabrics


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